Dear ????????,

Thank you for your extensive mail to explain your point of view. I am sorry for taking so long to reply, but the courses and book exams are getting tougher; I’ll use this time that I have insomnia to develop more the idea, as I do not want to think right now about university projects.

I do not try to make any provocations as you state, as I never said that ??????? was the one making or allowing censorship in US media. Criticism to ones home country should not be taken as a personal offense; some things are ok and others need to be corrected. How can I be offended if someone says that the Mexican bureaucracy is permeated by corruption if it is true?

I think that the topics are getting a little bit confusing, when a marginal comment in my email about media censorship got three paragraphs of argumentation as an answer. I believe that this discussion has actually 3 different topics:

i. The relevance of politics in the interculturalist work

ii. The nature of the incident of the Cuban delegation and

iii. The censorship argument in US media.

i. The relevance of politics in the interculturalist work: As I do not see any counter argument in your response about the relevance of politics in the interculturalist work, except perhaps when the part which I agree of being careful in the way how are introduced sensitive topics, I assume that this topic ended and you agree that it is very relevant not to be left outside.

__________________________________________________________

ii. The nature of the incident of the Cuban delegation: I want to state that I am not defending the Cubans, so I do not have any opponents among the Cuban-american population; they are free to decide their own form of government as they wish, and they are more than capable of defending themselves. But there are two arguments that I am supporting:

a. The historical elements that influence the communication and policies in US are more deeper and two sided than the mere opposition of Cuban Americans, and

b. The interference of an US Law in Mexican soil that led to an illegal action.

a. In the first point, I am surprised when you trace back the origin of the conflict to the Missile crisis in the cold war, this is very far from accurate. The conflict begins with the Spanish-US war, which the US won and gave military privileges to the US over the island, and led to US pointed dictators in Cuba, such as the General Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar who among other things, sold half of the touristic places and basic infrastructure to US American corporations, and kept their own citizens without access to them; for example, Cubans had restricted access to beaches where the hotels were situated to avoid disturbing tourists, casinos and prostitution were allowed. Popular discontent led to the successful revolution of Castro, but I will not go as far as to say that now they are better, anyhow he nationalized foreign assets (mostly from US) which led of course to threats of invasion. The threats were materialized in the form of a failed CIA plot that was the invasion of Bay of Pigs, where the Cubans repelled the attack in an actual battle. Immediately Castro turned to the Soviet Union for protection, as the enemy of my enemy is my ally, and the direct consequence was the missile crisis, so I want to clarify then that the US actually attacked Cuba before the missile crisis. That is the beginning of the economic blockade that persists now and just fuels anti US feelings among Cuban citizens.

b. About the Law problem in point b, you say that people are actually subject to law from many governments, the original government and the host country, this is true to a certain extent when specific treaties are signed and ratified by both congresses, but the host local law prevail if not previous agreement because of the sovereignty attribute of the state and, I wonder how would you disagree if this is the very basic foundation of the US constitution?. I think that the best way to argue about that is illustrating the case: If in country X slavery is allowed and encouraged, and a slave goes to the US where it is not allowed, just because he arrives to the US then he becomes a free man, no matter what country X says. Correct me if I am wrong, it is the basic premise of the US civil war?

If in Mexico discrimination is not allowed, and particulars cannot hold private money without a federal order, it does not matter if Bush himself calls the manager of the hotel in Mexico City, it is against the Mexican Law and it is prohibited without an international treaty, which is not the case.

__________________________________________________________

iii. About the censorship in US media. In this I have three basic arguments to support what is not an opinion, but what I consider a fact

a. As you must know if you worked many years in a newspaper, the majority of the media (TV broadcasters, local stations, newspapers, magazines, and books) in the US belongs to 5 players Time Warner, Disney, Murdoch’s News Corporation, Bertelsmann of Germany, and Viacom, and the major news broadcasters belong to 3 huge corporations: Time Warner, News Corporation, and Viacom

b. The existence of “Interlocking boards of directors” which influences certain directions in editorial lines. Media corporations share members of the board of directors with a variety of other large corporations, including banks, investment companies, oil companies, health care and pharmaceutical and technology companies.

c. Historical evidence of this phenomena: During the buildup to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, all 175 Murdoch-owned newspapers worldwide editorialized in favour of the war. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rupert_Keith_Murdoch) and (http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,897015,00.html)

__________________________________________________________

a.

As fewer players control the broadcasting scenario, it is easier to manipulate information. Global conglomerates can at times have a progressive impact on culture, especially when they enter nations that had been tightly controlled by corrupt crony media systems (as in much of Latin America) or nations that had significant state censorship over media (as in parts of Asia). The global commercial-media system is radical in that it will respect no tradition or custom, on balance, if it stands in the way of profits. But ultimately it is politically conservative, because the media giants are significant beneficiaries of the current social structure around the world, and any upheaval in property or social relations–particularly to the extent that it reduces the power of business–is not in their interest. It is useful to remind ourselves that free expression is threatened not just blatantly by authoritarian governments and all those in the private sector who fear public exposure, but also more subtly by the handful of global media conglomerates that have reduced meaningful diversity of expression in much of the globe.

To sustain that this is happening I am listing the ownership of each major player in the US media, the whole list can be seen http://www.cjr.org/tools/owners/

*********News Corporation

K. Rupert Murdoch
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer

From Forbes.com: Mr. Murdoch has served as Chairman of the Board of Directors since December 22, 2003 and has been Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer of News Corporation since November 2004. Mr. Murdoch served as Chairman of the Board of TNCL from 1991 until November 2004 and Executive Director and Chief Executive from 1979 until November 2004. He has been a Director of News Limited, News Corporation’s principal subsidiary in Australia, since 1953, a Director of News International Limited, News Corporation’s principal subsidiary in the United Kingdom, since 1969 and a Director of News America since 1973. Mr. Murdoch has been a Director of STAR since 1993 and served as Chairman of STAR from 1993 to 1998. Mr. Murdoch has been a Director of Fox Entertainment since 1985, Chairman since 1992 and Chief Executive Officer since 1995. Mr. Murdoch has served as a Director of BSkyB since 1990 and Chairman since 1999. Mr. Murdoch has served as a Director of Gemstar-TV Guide since 2001. Mr. Murdoch has served as a Director of China Netcom Group Corporation (Hong Kong) Limited since October 2004.

Television

Fox Broadcasting Company

Fox Television Stations

  • WNYW – New York City
  • WWOR – New York City
  • KTTV – Los Angeles
  • KCOP – Los Angeles
  • WFLD – Chicago
  • WPWR – Chicago
  • KMSP – Minneapolis
  • WFTC – Minneapolis
  • WTXF – Philadelphia
  • WFXT – Boston
  • WTTG – Washington D.C.
  • WDCA – Washington D.C.
  • KDFW – Dallas
  • KDFI – Dallas
  • WJBK – Detroit
  • KUTP – Phoenix
  • KSAZ – Phoenix
  • WUTB – Baltimore
  • WRBW – Orlando
  • WOFL – Orlando
  • WOGX – Ocala
  • WAGA – Atlanta
  • KRIV – Houston
  • KTXH – Houston
  • WJW – Cleveland
  • WTVT – Tampa
  • KDVR – Denver
  • KTVI – St. Louis
  • WITI – Milwaukee
  • WDAF – Kansas City
  • KSTU – Salt Lake City
  • WHBQ – Memphis
  • WGHP – Greensboro
  • WBRC – Birmingham
  • KTBC – Austin

DBS & Cable

  • FOXTEL
  • BSkyB
  • Star
  • DirecTV
  • Sky Italia
  • Fox News Channel
  • Fox Movie Channel
  • FX
  • FUEL
  • National Geographic Channel
  • SPEED Channel
  • Fox Sports Net
  • FSN New England (50%)
  • FSN Ohio
  • FSN Florida
  • National Advertising Partners
  • Fox College Sports
  • Fox Soccer Channel
  • Stats, Inc.

Film

  • 20th Century Fox
  • Fox Searchlight Pictures
  • Fox Television Studios
  • Blue Sky Studios

Newspapers

United States

  • New York Post

United Kingdom

  • News International
  • News of the World
  • The Sun
  • The Sunday Times
  • The Times

Australia

  • Daily Telegraph
  • Fiji Times
  • Gold Coast Bulletin
  • Herald Sun
  • Newsphotos
  • Newspix
  • Newstext
  • NT News
  • Post-Courier
  • Sunday Herald Sun
  • Sunday Mail
  • Sunday Tasmanian
  • Sunday Territorian
  • Sunday Times
  • The Advertiser
  • The Australian
  • The Courier-Mail
  • The Mercury
  • The Sunday Telegraph
  • Weekly Times

Magazines

  • InsideOut
  • donna hay
  • SmartSource
  • The Weekly Standard
  • TV Guide (partial)

Books

HarperMorrow Publishers

HarperMorrow

  • General Books Group
    • Access
    • Amistad
    • Caedmon
    • Avon
    • Ecco
    • Eos
    • Fourth Estate
    • HarperAudio
    • HarperBusiness
    • HarperCollins
    • Harper Design International
    • HarperEntertainment
    • HarperLargePrint
    • HarperResource
    • HarperSanFrancisco
    • HarperTorch
    • Perennial
    • PerfectBound
    • Quill
    • Rayo
    • ReganBooks
    • William Morrow
    • William Morrow Cookbooks
  • Children’s Books Group
    • Avon
    • Greenwillow Books
    • Joanna Cotler Books
    • Eos
    • Laura Geringer Books
    • HarperAudio
    • HarperCollins Children’s Books
    • HarperFestival
    • HarperTempest
    • Katherine Tegen Books
    • Trophy
    • Zondervan
  • HarperCollins UK
  • HarperCollins Canada
  • HarperCollins Australia

Other

  • Los Angeles Kings (NHL, 40% option)
  • Los Angeles Lakers (NBA, 9.8% option)
  • Staples Center (40% owned by Fox/Liberty)
  • News Interactive
  • Fox Sports Radio Network
  • Sky Radio Denmark
  • Sky Radio Germany
  • Broadsystem
  • Classic FM
  • Festival Records
  • Fox Interactive
  • IGN Entertainment
  • Mushroom Records
  • MySpace.com
  • National Rugby League
  • NDS
  • News Outdoor
  • Nursery World
  • Scout Media

*********Viacom

Television

CBS Stations:

  • KEYE-TV – Austin, TX
  • KOVR-TV – Sacramento, CA
  • WJZ-TV – Baltimore, MD
  • WBZ-TV – Boston, MA
  • WBBM-TV – Chicago, IL
  • KTVT-TV – Dallas-Fort Worth, TX
  • KCNC-TV – Denver, CO
  • WWJ-TV – Detroit, MI
  • WFRV-TV – Green Bay, WI
  • WCBS-TV – New York, NY
  • WFOR-TV – Miami-Ft. Lauderdale, FL
  • WCCO-TV – Minneapolis, MN
  • KYW-TV – Philadelphia, PA
  • KDKA-TV – Pittsburgh, PA
  • KUTV-TV – Salt Lake City, UT
  • KPIX-TV – San Francisco, CA
  • KCBS-TV – Los Angeles, CA

UPN Stations:

  • WUPA-TV – Atlanta
  • WSBK-TV – Boston
  • WWHO-TV – Columbus
  • KTXA-TV – Dallas
  • WKBD-TV – Detroit
  • WNDY-TV – Indianapolis
  • WBFS-TV – Miami
  • WUPL-TV – New Orleans
  • WGNT-TV – Norfolk
  • KAUT-TV – Oklahoma City
  • WPSG-TV – Philadelphia
  • WNPA-TV – Pittsburgh
  • WLWC-TV – Providence
  • KMAX-TV – Sacramento
  • KBHK-TV – San Francisco
  • KSTW-TV – Seattle
  • WTOG-TV – Tampa
  • WTVX-TV – W. Palm Beach

Others:

  • KCCO – Alexandria, MN
  • KCCW – Walker, MN
  • WJMN – Escanaba, WI
  • KUSG – Washington, UT
  • KCAL – Los Angeles, CA

Cable

  • MTV
  • MTV2
  • Nickelodeon
  • BET
  • Nick at Nite
  • TV Land
  • NOGGIN
  • VH1
  • Spike TV
  • CMT
  • Comedy Central
  • Showtime
  • The Movie Channel
  • Flix
  • Sundance Channel

Television Production and Distribution

  • Spelling Television
  • Big Ticket Television
  • King World Productions

Radio

Infinity Broadcasting

Northeast

Baltimore
WBGR – AM
WBMD – AM
WJFK – AM
WLIF – FM
WQSR – FM
WWMX – FM
WXYV – FM

Boston
WBCN – FM
WBMX – FM
WBZ – AM
WODS – FM
WZLX – FM

Buffalo
WBLK – FM
WBUF – FM
WECK – AM
WJYE – FM
WYRK – FM

Hartford
WRCH – FM
WTIC – AM/FM
WZMX – FM

New York
WCBS – AM/FM
WFAN – AM
WINS – AM
WNEW – FM
WXRK – FM

Philadelphia
KYW – AM
WIP – AM
WOGL – FM
WPHT – AM
WYSP – FM

Pittsburgh
KDKA – AM
WDSY – FM
WRKZ – FM
WZPT – FM

Rochester
WCMF – FM
WPXY – FM
WRMM – FM
WZNE – FM

Washington D.C
WARW – FM
WHFS – FM
WJFK – FM
WPGC – AM/FM

South

Charlotte
WBAV – FM
WFNZ – AM
WGIV – AM
WNKS – FM
WPEG – FM
WSOC – FM
WSSS – FM

Houston
KIKK – AM/FM
KILT – AM/FM

Orlando
WJHM – FM
WOCL – FM
WOMX – FM

San Antonio
KTFM – FM
KTSA – AM

Tampa
WLLD – FM
WQYK – AM/FM
WRBQ – FM
WSJT – FM
WYUU – FM

West Palm Beach
WEAT – FM
WIRK – FM
WJBW – FM
WMBX – FM
WPBZ – FM

Austin
KAMX – FM
KJCE – AM
KKMJ – FM
KQBT – FM

Dallas
KLUV – FM
KOAI – FM
KRBV – FM
KRLD – AM
KVIL – FM
KYNG – FM

Greensboro / Winston Salem
WMFR – AM
WSJS – AM
WSML – AM

Memphis
WMC – AM/FM
WMFS – FM

Atlanta
WAOK – AM
WVEE – FM
WZGC – FM

Midwest

Chicago
WBBM – AM/FM
WCKG – FM
WJMK – FM
WSCR – AM
WUSN – FM
WXRT – FM

Cincinnati
WAQZ – FM
WGRR – FM
WKRQ – FM
WUBE – FM

Cleveland
WDOK – FM
WNCX – FM
WQAL – FM
WXTM – FM

Columbus
WAZU – FM
WHOK – FM
WLVQ – FM

Detroit
WKRK – FM
WOMC – FM
WVMV – FM
WWJ – AM
WXYT – AM
WYCD – FM

Kansas City
KBEQ – FM
KFKF – FM
KMXV – FM
KSRC – FM

Minneapolis
KDOW – AM
WCCO – AM
WLTE – FM
WXPT – FM

St. Louis
KEZK – FM
KMOX – AM
KYKY – FM

West

Denver
KDJM – FM
KIMN – FM
KXKL – FM

Fresno
KMGV – FM
KMJ – AM
KOOR – AM
KOQO – FM
KRNC – FM
KSKS – FM
KVSR – FM

Las Vegas
KLUC – FM
KMXB – FM
KMZQ – FM
KSFN – AM
KXNT – AM
KXTE – FM

Los Angeles
KCBS – FM
KEZN – FM
KFWB – AM
KLSX – FM
KNX – AM
KROQ – FM
KRTH – FM
KTWV – FM

Phoenix
KMLE – FM
KOOL – FM
KZON – FM

Portland
KINK – FM
KLTH – FM
KUFO – FM
KUPL – AM/FM
KVMX – FM

Riverside
KFRG – FM
KVFG – FM
KVVQ – AM
KXFG – FM

Sacramento
KHTK – AM
KNCI – FM
KSFM – FM
KXOA – FM
KYMX – FM
KZZO – FM

San Diego
KPLN – FM
KYXY – FM

San Francisco
KCBS – AM
KFRC – FM
KFRC – AM
KITS – FM
KKWV – FM
KLLC – FM
KYCY – AM

San Jose
KBAY – FM
KEZR – FM

Seattle
KBKS – FM
KMPS – FM
KYCW – AM
KYPT – FM
KZOK – FM

The Viacom Outdoor Group

  • TDI Worldwide
  • Westwood One

Film

  • Paramount Pictures
  • Paramount Home Entertainment

Publishing

Simon & Schuster

  • Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group
    • Atria Books
    • Kaplan
    • Pocket Books
    • Scribner
    • Simon & Schuster
    • The Free Press
    • The Touchstone
    • Fireside Group
  • Simon & Schuster Children’s Publishing
    • Aladdin Paperbacks
    • Atheneum Books for Young Readers
    • Little Simon
    • Margaret K. McElderry Books
    • Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers
    • Simon Pulse
    • Simon Spotlight
  • Simon & Schuster New Media
  • Simon & Schuster Online
  • Simon & Schuster UK
  • Simon & Schuster Australia
  • MTV Books

*********Time Warner

Time Warner – Books

Time Warner Book Group

    • Warner Books
      • The Mysterious Press
      • Warner Vision
      • Warner Business Books
      • Aspect
    • Warner Faith
      • Warner Treasures
      • TW Kids
    • Little, Brown and Company
      • Little, Brown Adult Trade
      • Little, Brown Books for Young Readers
      • Back Bay
      • Bulfinch Press
  • Time Warner Book Group UK
  • Time Warner Audio Books
  • Time Inc.
    • Southern Progress Corporation
      • Sunset Books
      • Oxmoor House
      • Leisure Arts

Time Warner – Cable

  • HBO
  • CNN
  • CNN International
  • CNN en Espanol
  • CNN Headline News
  • CNN Airport Network
  • CNN fn
  • CNN Radio
  • CNN Interactive
  • Court TV (with Liberty Media)
  • Time Warner Cable
  • Road Runner
  • New York 1 News (24 hour news channel devoted only to NYC)
  • Kablevision (53.75% – cable television in Hungary)

In Demand

  • Metro Sports (Kansas City)

Time Warner Inc. – Film & TV Production/Distribution

  • Warner Bros.
  • Warner Bros. Studios
  • Warner Bros. Television (production)
  • The WB Television Network
  • Warner Bros. Television Animation
  • Hanna – Barbera Cartoons
  • Telepictures Production
  • Witt – Thomas Productions
  • Castle Rock Entertainment
  • Warner Home Video
  • Warner Bros. Domestic Pay – TV
  • Warner Bros. Domestic Television Distribution
  • Warner Bros. International Television Distribution
  • The Warner Channel (Latin America, Asia – Pacific, Australia, Germ.)
  • Warner Bros. International Theaters (owns/operates multiplex theaters in over 12 countries)

Time Warner Inc. – Magazines

  • Time
    • Time Asia
    • Time Atlantic
    • Time Canada
    • Time Latin America
    • Time South Pacific
    • Time Money
    • Time For Kids
  • Fortune
  • All You
  • Business 2.0
  • Life
  • Sports Illustrated
    • Sports Illustrated International
    • SI for Kids
  • Inside Stuff
  • Money
    • Your Company
    • Your Future
  • People
    • Who Weekly (Australian edition)
    • People en Español
    • Teen People
  • Entertainment Weekly
    • EW Metro
  • The Ticket
  • In Style
  • Southern Living
  • Progressive Farmer
  • Southern Accents
  • Cooking Light
  • The Parent Group
    • Parenting
    • Baby Talk
    • Baby on the Way
  • This Old House
  • Sunset
  • Sunset Garden Guide
  • The Health Publishing Group
    • Health
    • Hippocrates
    • Coastal Living
    • Weight Watchers
  • Real Simple
  • Asiaweek (Asian news weekly)
  • President (Japanese business monthly)
  • Dancyu (Japanese cooking)
  • Wallpaper (U.K.)
  • Field & Stream
  • Freeze
  • Golf Magazine
  • Outdoor Life
  • Popular Science
  • Salt Water Sportsman
  • Ski
  • Skiing Magazine
  • Skiing Trade News
  • SNAP
  • Snowboard Life
  • Ride BMX
  • Today’s Homeowner
  • TransWorld Skateboarding
  • TransWorld Snowboarding
  • Verge
  • Yachting Magazine
  • Warp
  • American Express Publishing Corporation (partial ownership/management)
    • Travel & Leisure
    • Food & Wine
    • Your Company
    • Departures
    • SkyGuide
  • Magazines listed under Warner Brothers label
    • DC Comics
    • Vertigo
    • Paradox
    • Milestone
    • Mad Magazine

Online Services

  • CompuServe Interactive Services
  • AOL Instant Messenger
  • AOL.com portal
  • Digital City
  • AOL Europe
  • ICQ
  • The Knot, Inc. – wedding content (8 % with QVC 36% and Hummer
  • WinbladFunds18%)
  • MapQuest.com – pending regulatory approval
  • Spinner.com
  • Winamp
  • DrKoop.com (10%)
  • Legend (49% – Internet service in China)

Time Warner – Online/Other Publishing

  • Road Runner
  • Warner Publisher Services
  • Time Distribution Services
  • American Family Publishers (50%)
  • Pathfinder
  • Africana.com

Time Warner – Merchandise/Retail

  • Warner Bros. Consumer Products

Theme Parks

  • Warner Brothers Recreation Enterprises (owns/operates international theme parks)

Time Warner Inc. – Turner Entertainment

Entertainment Networks

  • TBS Superstation
  • Turner Network Television (TNT)
  • Turner South
  • Cartoon Network
  • Turner Classic Movies
  • Cartoon Network in Europe
  • Cartoon Network in Latin America
  • TNT & Cartoon Network in Asia/Pacific

Film Production

  • New Line Cinema
  • Fine Line Features
  • Turner Original Productions

Sports

  • Atlanta Braves

Other Operations

  • Turner Learning
  • CNN Newsroom (daily news program for classrooms)
  • Turner Adventure Learning (electronic field trips for schools)
  • Turner Home Satellite
  • Turner Network Sales

Other

  • Netscape Communications
  • Netscape Netcenter portal
  • AOL MovieFone
  • iAmaze
  • Amazon.com (partial)
  • Quack.com
  • Streetmail (partial)
  • Switchboard (6%)

__________________________________________________________

b.

Private interests are in favor of certain editorials that cannot be regarded as neutral or objective at all.

Media corporations share members of the board of directors with a variety of other large corporations, including banks, investment companies, oil companies, health care and pharmaceutical companies and technology companies. The following list shows board interlocks for June 2001 found in http://www.fair.org/media-woes/interlocking-directorates.html:

*********Disney/ABC

Boeing
Casella Waste Systems
CB Richard Ellis Services
City National Bank
Columbia/HCA Healthcare
Doubleclick
Edison International
FedEx
Jenny Craig
LM Institutional Fund Advisors I
Lozano Communications
Northwest Airlines
On Command Corp.
Pacific American Income Shares
Shamrock Holdings
Sotheby’s N. America
Staples
Starwood Hotels & Resorts
Sun Microsystems
SunAmerica
Trefoil Investors
UNUM Provident
Verdon-Cedric Productions
Xerox

*********General Electric/NBC

Alcatel
Anheuser-Busch
Ann Taylor
Avon
Banco Nacional de Mexico
Cambridge Technology Partners
Catalyst
Champion International
Chase Manhattan
Choice-Point
Chubb Corporation
Coca-Cola
Community Health Systems
Dell Computer
Delphi Automotive
Fiat
Home Depot
Honeywell
Illinois Tool Works
International Speedy
Internet Security Systems
Invemed
Morgan Chase & Co.
Kellogg
Kimberly-Clark
Knight-Ridder
Microtune
Morgan Gauranty Trust
National Service Industries
New York Stock Exchange
Oglivy & Mather
Penske
Planet Hollywood
Scientific Atlanta
State Street Bank and Trust
Sun Microsystems
Texaco
TIAA-CREF
Total Systems Services
TRICON Global Restaurants
Unifi
Unilever
WinStar

*********Viacom/CBS

Akamai Technologies
Amazon.com
American Express
American Home Products Corp
Atlas Air
Avnet
Bank One
Bear Sterns Companies
Boston Properties
Cardinal Health
Care Capital
Chase Manhattan
CineBridge Ventures
Credit Suisse First Boston Corp.
CVS
Daimler Chrysler
Dell
DND Capital Partners
Downeast Food Distributors
Electronic Data Systems
Ezgov.com
Genuity
Honeywell
Morgan Chase & Co.
Lafarge Corp
Louisiana Marine Transport
Maersk Group
MBIA
MovieTickets.com
New York Stock Exchange
Orion Safety Products
PartnerRe
Pfizer
Polaris Venture Capital
Prudential Insurance
Rockwell International Corp
Sonesta
Ventro
Verizon
Visteon

*********Time Warner

Allstate
American Express
American International
AMR
Barksdale Group
Catellus Development
Chevron
Citigroup
Colgate-Palmolive
Community Health Systems
Dell Computers
Eagle River
Exult
Fannie Mae
FedEx
Forstmann Little & Co.
Hills & Co.
Hilton Hotels
Interpublic Group
Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers
Lucent
Morgan Stanley Dean Witter
New York Stock Exchange
Nextel Communications
Oakwood Homes Corp
Park Place Entertainment
Pearson plc
PepsiCo
Pfizer
Pharmacyclics
Sears
Sun Microsystems
TCW
Webvan
Westfield America Corp
XO Communications
ZG Ventures

*********News Corporation/FOX

Allen & Company
Bayou Steel Corp
Beijing PDN Xiren Info. Tech. Co.
British Airways
Championship Auto Racing Teams
Commonwealth Bank of Australia
Compaq
Gateway
John Swire and Son Pty.
Kleiner, Perkins, Caufield & Byers
New York Stock Exchange
One.Tel
Phillip Morris
PMP Communications
RM William Holdings
Rothschild Investment
Sanoma of Finnland
Six Flags
Valence Technology
Western Multiplex Corp
Worldcom

__________________________________________________________

c.

As the support of my last argument, I just paste information found in wikipedia about Murdoch. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rupert_Murdoch

Murdoch is often accused of running partisan media coverage for political parties that promote policies and decisions which favour his commercial interests. For example, it is believed that Murdoch tried to suppress publication of the memoirs of Chris Patten, the last British governor of Hong Kong, in an attempt to curry favour with China. Patten’s book was critical of the Chinese government. Whatever the motives, the book was dropped from publication by Murdoch’s HarperCollins publishing company.

One way in which Murdoch has been accused of using his media to influence the democratic politics is in the revealing of damaging personal information about a particular political candidate. This may be illustrated by the case of Mark Oaten who is a representative of the Liberal Democrat party in the United Kingdom. The Murdoch-owned “News of the World” newspaper revealed in January 2006, that Oaten had been having a homosexual affair on an ongoing basis. Since the Liberal Democrat party holds political viewpoints contrary to Murdochs current position (specifically, the war in Iraq), some have speculated that Oaten was targetted in order destabilize the party to which he belongs.

Murdoch’s British media outlets generally support eurosceptic positions, and generally show contempt for the European Union. Murdoch publications worldwide tend to adopt anti-French, pro-Israeli and pro-American views. During the buildup to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, all 175 Murdoch-owned newspapers worldwide editorialized in favour of the war. [8] Murdoch also served on the board of directors of the Cato Institute.

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